New particles discovered at the LHC

New fundamental particles

CounterExperimentParticleMass [GeV]DateReferenceNote
1.ATLAS$\sf Higgs\ Boson$$126.0\pm0.6$31 Jul 2012Phys. Lett. B716 (2012) 1
1.CMS$\sf Higgs\ Boson$$125.3\pm0.7$31 Jul 2012Phys. Lett. B716 (2012) 30

So far 1 fundamental particle has been discovered at the LHC.

New hadrons

CounterExperimentParticleMass [MeV]QuarksDateReferenceNote
1.ATLAS$\chi_b(3P)$$10530\pm10$$b\bar{b}$21 Dec 2011Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 (2012) 152001Later resolved into $\chi_{b1}(3P)$ and $\chi_{b2}(3P)$
2.CMS$\Xi_b(5945)^0$$5945\pm3$$bsu$26 Apr 2012Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 (2012) 252002
3.LHCb$\Lambda_b(5920)^0$$5919.8\pm0.7$$bud$15 May 2012Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 (2012) 172003
4.LHCb$\Lambda_b(5912)^0$$5912.0\pm0.7$$bud$15 May 2012Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 (2012) 172003
5-6.LHCb$D_J^*(3000)^{+,0}$$3008\pm4$$c\bar{q}$17 Jul 2013JHEP 09 (2013) 145Mass of $+$ state fixed in fit
7.LHCb$D_J(3000)^0$$2972\pm9$$c\bar{u}$17 Jul 2013JHEP 09 (2013) 145
8.LHCb$D_J^*(2760)^+$$2772\pm4$$c\bar{d}$17 Jul 2013JHEP 09 (2013) 145
9.LHCb$D_J(2740)^0$$2737\pm12$$c\bar{u}$17 Jul 2013JHEP 09 (2013) 145
10.LHCb$D_J(2580)^0$$2580\pm6$$c\bar{u}$17 Jul 2013JHEP 09 (2013) 145
11.CMS$X(4140)$$4148\pm7$$c\bar{c}(s\bar{s})$26 Sep 2013Phys. Lett. B734 (2014) 261Four-quark content not unambiguouly established.
12.ATLAS$B_c(2S)^+$$6842\pm6$$\bar{b}c$03 Jul 2014Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (2014) 212004Later resolved into two states.
13.LHCb$D_{s1}^*(2860)^+$$2859\pm27$$c\bar{s}$28 Jul 2014Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (2014) 162001Resolves $D_{sJ}(2860)^+$. See Note a.
14.LHCb$\Xi_b(5955)^{-}$$5955.3\pm0.5$$bsd$18 Nov 2014Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 (2015) 062004
15.LHCb$\Xi_b'(5935)^{-}$$5935.0\pm0.5$$bsd$18 Nov 2014Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 (2015) 062004
16-17.LHCb$B_J(5970)^{+,0}$$5969\pm6$$\bar{b}q$09 Feb 2015JHEP 1504 (2015) 024
18-19.LHCb$B_J(5840)^{+,0}$$5863\pm9$$\bar{b}q$09 Feb 2015JHEP 1504 (2015) 024 See Note b.
20.LHCb$P^N_{\psi}(4450)^+$$4449.8\pm3.0$$c\bar{c}uud$13 Jul 2015Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 (2015) 072001Was $P_c(4450)^+$. Later resolved into $P^N_{\psi}(4440)^+$ and $P^N_{\psi}(4457)^+$.
21.LHCb$P^N_{\psi}(4380)^+$$4380\pm30$$c\bar{c}uud$13 Jul 2015Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 (2015) 072001Was $P_c(4380)^+$.
22.LHCb$X(4700)$$4704\,^{+\,17}_{-\,26}$$c\bar{c}(s\bar{s})$25 Jun 2016Phys. Rev. Lett. 118 (2017) 022003Four-quark content not unambiguouly established. See Note c.
23.LHCb$X(4500)$$4506\,^{+\,16}_{-\,19}$$c\bar{c}(s\bar{s})$25 Jun 2016Phys. Rev. Lett. 118 (2017) 022003Four-quark content not unambiguouly established.
24.LHCb$X(4274)$$4273\,^{+\,19}_{-\,9}$$c\bar{c}(s\bar{s})$25 Jun 2016Phys. Rev. Lett. 118 (2017) 022003Four-quark content not unambiguouly established.
25.LHCb$D_3^*(2760)^0$$2776\pm8$$c\bar{u}$03 Aug 2016Phys. Rev. D94 (2016) 072001
26.LHCb$\Lambda_c(2860)^+$$2856\,^{+\,2}_{-\,6}$$cud$26 Jan 2017JHEP 05 (2017) 30
27.LHCb$\Omega_c(3119)^0$$3119.1\,^{+\,1.0}_{-\,1.1}$$css$14 Mar 2017Phys. Rev. Lett. 118 (2017) 182001
28.LHCb$\Omega_c(3090)^0$$3090.2\,^{+\,0.7}_{-\,0.8}$$css$14 Mar 2017Phys. Rev. Lett. 118 (2017) 182001
29.LHCb$\Omega_c(3066)^0$$3065.6\,^{+\,0.4}_{-\,0.6}$$css$14 Mar 2017Phys. Rev. Lett. 118 (2017) 182001
30.LHCb$\Omega_c(3050)^0$$3050.2\,^{+\,0.3}_{-\,0.5}$$css$14 Mar 2017Phys. Rev. Lett. 118 (2017) 182001
31.LHCb$\Omega_c(3000)^0$$3000.4\,^{+\,0.4}_{-\,0.5}$$css$14 Mar 2017Phys. Rev. Lett. 118 (2017) 182001
32.LHCb$\Xi^{++}_{cc}$$3621.4\pm0.8$$ccu$06 Jul 2017Phys. Rev. Lett. 119 (2017) 112001Weakly decaying
33.LHCb$\Xi_b(6227)^-$$6226.9\pm2.0$$bsd$23 May 2018Phys. Rev. Lett. 121 (2018) 072002
34.CMS$\chi_{b2}(3P)$$10524.0 \pm 0.6$$b\bar{b}$28 May 2018Phys. Rev. Lett. 121 (2018) 092002Resolves $\chi_{b}(3P)$.
CMS$\chi_{b1}(3P)$$10513.4 \pm 0.4$$b\bar{b}$28 May 2018Phys. Rev. Lett. 121 (2018) 092002Resolves $\chi_{b}(3P)$.
35.LHCb$\Sigma_b(6097)^-$$6095.8\pm1.8$$bdd$20 Sep 2018Phys. Rev. Lett. 122 (2019) 012001
36.LHCb$\Sigma_b(6097)^+$$6098.0\pm1.8$$buu$20 Sep 2018Phys. Rev. Lett. 122 (2019) 012001
37.CMS$B_c^{*}(2S)^+$Undetermined$\bar{b}c$01 Feb 2019Phys. Rev. Lett. 122 (2019) 132001Resolves $B_c(2S)^+$ (ATLAS). See Note a.
CMS$B_c(2S)^+$$6871.0\pm1.6$$\bar{b}c$01 Feb 2019Phys. Rev. Lett. 122 (2019) 132001Resolves $B_c(2S)^+$ (ATLAS). See Note d.
38.LHCb$\psi_3(3842)$$3842.7\pm0.2$$c\bar{c}$28 Mar 2019JHEP 1907 (2019) 035Was $X(3842)$. Could be the $\psi_3(1^3D_3)$ charmonium
39.LHCb$P^N_{\psi}(4457)^+$$4457\,^{+\,4}_{-\,2}$$c\bar{c}uud$08 Apr 2019Phys. Rev. Lett. 122 (2019) 222001Was $P_c(4457)^+$. Resolves $P^N_{\psi}(4450)^+$.
LHCb$P^N_{\psi}(4440)^+$$4440\,^{+\,4}_{-\,5}$$c\bar{c}uud$08 Apr 2019Phys. Rev. Lett. 122 (2019) 222001Was $P_c(4440)^+$. Resolves $P^N_{\psi}(4450)^+$.
40.LHCb$P^N_{\psi}(4312)^+$$4312\,^{+\,7}_{-\,1}$$c\bar{c}uud$08 Apr 2019Phys. Rev. Lett. 122 (2019) 222001Was $P_c(4312)^+$.
41.LHCb$\Lambda_b(6152)^0$$6152.5\pm0.4$$bud$31 Jul 2019Phys. Rev. Lett. 123 (2019) 152001
42.LHCb$\Lambda_b(6146)^0$$6146.2\pm0.4$$bud$31 Jul 2019Phys. Rev. Lett. 123 (2019) 152001
43.LHCb$\Omega_b(6350)^-$$6349.9\pm0.6$$bss$03 Jan 2020Phys. Rev. Lett. 124 (2020) 082002
44.LHCb$\Omega_b(6340)^-$$6339.7\pm0.6$$bss$03 Jan 2020Phys. Rev. Lett. 124 (2020) 082002
45.LHCb$\Lambda_b(6070)^0$$6072.3\pm3.0$$bud$12 Feb 2020JHEP 06 (2020) 136
46.LHCb$\Xi_c(2939)^0$$2938.55\pm0.30$$csd$30 Mar 2020Phys. Rev. Lett. 124 (2020) 222001 See Note e.
47.LHCb$\Xi_c(2923)^0$$2923.04\pm0.35$$csd$30 Mar 2020Phys. Rev. Lett. 124 (2020) 222001
48.LHCb$T_{\psi\psi}(6900)$$6905\pm13$$c\bar{c}c\bar{c}$30 Jun 2020Science Bulletin 2020 65(23) 1983Was $X(6900)$. Mass given for one of the fits.
49.LHCb$T_{cs1}(2900)^0$$2904\pm5$$c\bar{d}s\bar{u}$31 Aug 2020Phys. Rev. D102 (2020) 112003Was $X_1(2900)$.
50.LHCb$T_{cs0}(2900)^0$$2866\pm7$$c\bar{d}s\bar{u}$31 Aug 2020Phys. Rev. D102 (2020) 112003Was $X_0(2900)$.
51.LHCb$\Xi_b(6227)^0$$6227.1\,^{+\,1.5}_{-\,1.6}$$bsu$27 Oct 2020Phys. Rev. D103 (2021) 012004Isospin partner of $\Xi_b(6227)^-$
52.LHCb$B_s^*(6114)^0$$6114\pm6$$\bar{b}s$29 Oct 2020Eur. Phys. J. C81 (2021) 601See Note f.
53.LHCb$B_s^*(6063)^0$$6063.5\pm1.4$$\bar{b}s$29 Oct 2020Eur. Phys. J. C81 (2021) 601 See Note f.
54.LHCb$D_{s0}(2590)^+$$2591\pm9$$c\bar{s}$18 Nov 2020Phys. Rev. Lett. 126 (2021) 122002
55.CMS$\Xi_b(6100)^-$$6100.3\pm0.6$$bsd$08 Feb 2021Phys. Rev. Lett. 126 (2021) 252003
56.LHCb$X(4685)$$4684\,^{+\,15}_{-\,17}$$c\bar{c}(s\bar{s})$02 Mar 2021Phys. Rev. Lett. 127 (2021) 082001Four-quark content not unambiguously established.
57.LHCb$X(4630)$$4630\,^{+\,20}_{-\,110}$$c\bar{c}(s\bar{s})$02 Mar 2021Phys. Rev. Lett. 127 (2021) 082001Four-quark content not unambiguously established.
58.LHCb$T_{\psi s1}(4220)^+$$4220\,^{+\,50}_{-\,40}$$c\bar{c}u\bar{s}$02 Mar 2021Phys. Rev. Lett. 127 (2021) 082001Was $Z_{cs}(4220)^+$
59.LHCb$T^{\theta}_{\psi s1}(4000)^+$$4003\,^{+\,7}_{-\,15}$$c\bar{c}u\bar{s}$02 Mar 2021Phys. Rev. Lett. 127 (2021) 082001Was $Z_{cs}(4000)^+$. See Note g.
60.LHCb$T_{cc}(3875)^+$$3870.01\pm0.12$$cc\bar{u}\bar{d}$03 Sep 2021Nature Phys. 18 (2022) 7
61.LHCb$\Xi_b(6333)^0$$6332.7\pm0.3$$bsu$12 Oct 2021Phys. Rev. Lett. 128 (2022) 162001
62.LHCb$\Xi_b(6327)^0$$6327.3\pm0.3$$bsu$12 Oct 2021Phys. Rev. Lett. 128 (2022) 162001
63.CMS$T_{\psi\psi}(6600)$$6552\pm16$$c\bar{c}c\bar{c}$09 Jul 2022Preliminary
64.LHCb$P_{\psi s}^{\Lambda}(4338)^0$$4338.2\pm0.8$$c\bar{c}sud$19 Oct 2022arXiv:2210.10346
65.LHCb$X(3960)$$3955\pm13$$c\bar{c}(s\bar{s})$25 Oct 2022arXiv:2210.15153Unlikely ($3\sigma$) to be the same state as $\chi_c(3915)$. See Note h.
66.LHCb$\Omega_c(3185)^0$$3185.1\,^{+\,7.6}_{-\,1.9}$$ccs$30 Nov 2022Preliminary
67.LHCb$\Omega_c(3327)^0$$3327.1\,^{+\,1.3}_{-\,1.8}$$ccs$30 Nov 2022Preliminary
68.LHCb$T^a_{c\bar{s}0}(2900)^0$$2892\pm21$$c\bar{s}\bar{u}d$06 Dec 2022arXiv:2212.02716
69.LHCb$T^a_{c\bar{s}0}(2900)^{++}$$2921\pm25$$c\bar{s}u\bar{d}$06 Dec 2022arXiv:2212.02716
70.LHCb$T^{\theta}_{\psi s1}(4000)^0$$3991\,^{+\,14}_{-\,20}$$c\bar{c}d\bar{s}$12 Jan 2023arXiv:2301.04899Isospin partner of the $T^{\theta}_{\psi s1}(4000)^+$. See Note i.

So far 70 hadrons have been discovered at the LHC, of which 62 by LHCb



Number of new hadrons per year.
LHCb-only version: pdf, png


Number of hadrons versus time.
LHCb-only version: pdf, png


Masses and discovery date for states observed at the LHC. Hollow markers indicate superseded states.


Masses and discovery date for states observed at LHCb. Hollow markers indicate superseded states.


Masses and discovery date for conventional mesons observed at the LHC. Hollow markers indicate superseded states.


Masses and discovery date for conventional baryons observed at the LHC. Hollow markers indicate superseded states.


Masses and discovery date for conventional hadrons observed at the LHC. Hollow markers indicate superseded states.


Masses and discovery date for exotic states observed at the LHC. Hollow markers indicate superseded states.

Only first observations of particles with $5\sigma$ significance are listed. $q$ stands for $u$ or $d$. If a peak is observed and later resolved into several components, both papers are listed but particles are not double counted. This page uses the naming convention of arXiv:2206.15233

Notes:
  1. Previously known narrow $D_{s}(2860)^-$ resolved into a wide spin-1 and a narrow spin-3 state. We therefore consider the spin-1 state to be new.
  2. Charged and neutral states seen. The masses reported here are those of the neutral state (using the "empirical fit"). The heavier state could be the $B_J(5970)$ seen by CDF.
  3. A state $X(4740)$ was reported by LHCb with properties that are consistent with those of the $X(4700)$ state. It is not listed here.
  4. Two peaks are observed. One is the $B_c(2S)^+$, the other likely the partially reconstructed $B_c^*(2S)^+$. The mass of the $B_c(2S)^{*+}$ is determined to be $m(B_c^{*+}(2S))-m(B_c^{*+}) = 567.0\pm1.0$ MeV.
  5. A third state, $\Xi_c(2965)^0$, is observed, but it is not yet clear if it differs from the known $\Xi_c(2970)^0$ baryon.
  6. These states decay to $BK$ and thus have natural spin-parity, making them $B_s^*$ states. But the possibility of the peak being produced through $B^*K$ with a missing photon is also discussed in the paper. This comment potentially applies to other states discovered in prompt production.
  7. The mass of the $T^{\theta}_{\psi s1}(4000)^+$ state is consistent with that of the $T^{\theta}_{\psi s1}(3985)^+$ reported by BESIII but its width is significantly larger.
  8. Also, $X(3960)$ most likely has strange content while $\chi_c(3915)$ doesn't.
  9. The significance of this resonance in the $B^0$ fit alone is $4.0\sigma$ but is above $5\sigma$ if it is assumed to be the isospin partner of the $T^{\theta}_{\psi s1}(4000)^+$.

Please report mistakes and omissions.

A supporting note (dated 2 March 2021, with a count at 59 resonances) is available at LHCb-FIGURE-2021-001.

How to cite these plots: LHCb collaboration, P. Koppenburg, List of hadrons observed at the LHC, LHCb-FIGURE-2021-001, 2021, and 2023 updates. (See BibTeX and cff snippets). © CC BY 4.0 Patrick Koppenburg, 2023.